Cytopathology Department


Our Department

The Cytopathology Laboratory Department at the Mycetoma Research Center plays a crucial role in swiftly and precisely diagnosing mycetoma, as well as monitoring disease recurrences. We actively encourage requests from physicians in need of primary diagnoses, second opinions, or advanced services beyond their capabilities. Additionally, patients who self-refer for a prompt diagnosis or a second opinion are welcome to approach. Moreover, we are actively engaged in rigorous and high-caliber research endeavours.


The Cytopathology Department at MRC stands as one of the pioneering cytopathology laboratories in Sudan. It holds the distinction of being the first to report mycetoma cytodiagnosis and has been instrumental in conducting field and community surveys.

Special Capabilities and Services

Using a procedure developed at MRC laboratory, we can expand a single sample onto multiple different slides. Cell transfer technique enables us to get far more information from small samples, restore broken slides and create additional slides from a single slide for immunostaining techniques and for rare cases.

Conducting fine needle aspiration on superficial lesions by a seasoned cytopathologist provides the benefit of securing sufficient specimens. In certain instances, prompt diagnoses can be established, initiating timely and suitable patient management. Collaboratively, we frequently coordinate with MRC radiologists to perform ultrasound-guided sample aspirations.

Timely Results

Upon acquiring and examining samples and slides, a written report and telephone consultation can typically be furnished within one or two days. The turnaround time for cytological smears and other routine tests typically averages around three days.



  • Prof. Badreldin M. Yousif
  • Dr. Mustafa Elnour
  • Dr. Osama Elhadi Bakhiet
  • Mr. Mohamed Motasim Ali
  • Miss. Omnia Babiker

Publication List:

  • EL Hag IA, Fahal AH, Gasim ET. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mycetoma. Acta Cytol. 1996 May-Jun;40(3):461-4. doi: 10.1159/000333899. PMID: 8669179.
  • Yousif BM, Fahal AH, Shakir MY. A new technique for the diagnosis of mycetoma using fixed blocks of aspirated material. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jan;104(1):6-9. doi: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.06.015. Epub 2009 Aug 22. PMID: 19700179.
  • Siddig EE, Ahmed A, Hassan OB, Bakhiet SM, Verbon A, Fahal AH, van de Sande WWJ. Using a Madurella mycetomatis specific PCR on grains obtained via non-invasive Fine Needle Aspirated material is more accurate than cytology. Mycoses. 2023 Feb 5. doi: 10.1111/myc.13572. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36740735.
  • Siddig EE, Nyuykonge B, Mhmoud NA, Abdallah OB, Bahar MEN, Ahmed ES, Nyaoke B, Zijlstra EE, Verbon A, Bakhiet SM, Fahal AH, van de Sande WWJ. Comparing the performance of the common used eumycetoma diagnostic tests. Mycoses. 2022 Dec 29. doi: 10.1111/myc.13561. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36583225.
  •  Siddig EE, El Had Bakhait O, El Nour Hussein Bahar M, Siddig Ahmed E, Bakhiet SM, Motasim Ali M, Babekir Abdallah O, Ahmed Hassan R, Verbon A, van de Sande WWJ, Fahal AH. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology significantly improved mycetoma diagnosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2022 Oct;36(10):1845-1850. doi: 10.1111/jdv.18363. Epub 2022 Jul 6. PMID: 35748131; PMCID: PMC9543342.
  •  Siddig EE, Mhmoud NA, Bakhiet SM, Abdallah OB, Mekki SO, El Dawi NI, Van de Sande W, Fahal AH. The Accuracy of Histopathological and Cytopathological Techniques in the Identification of the Mycetoma Causative Agents. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Aug 29;13(8):e0007056. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007056. PMID: 31465459; PMCID: PMC6750607.
  •  EL Hag IA, Fahal AH, Gasim ET. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mycetoma. Acta Cytol. 1996 May-Jun;40(3):461-4. doi: 10.1159/000333899. PMID: 8669179.