Latest Publications

                                                                                                                                                                           

2017

1. Mitjà O, Marks M, Bertran L, Kollie K, Argaw D, Fahal AH, Fitzpatrick C, Claire Fuller L, Izquierdo BG, Hay R, Ishii N,  JohnsonC,Lazarus JV, Meka A, Murdoch M, Ohene SA, Smal Pl, Andrew Steer A, Tabah EN, Tiendrebeogo A, Lance Waller L, Yotsu R, Walker SL, Kingsley Asiedut  K. Integrated Control and Management of Neglected Tropical Skin Diseases. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2017, 11(1): e0005136. Doi

 

2. Fahal AH (2017) Mycetoma: A global medical and socio-economic dilemma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 11(4): e0005509. https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pntd.0005509

 

3. Eadie K, Parel F, Helvert-van Poppel M, Fahal A, van de Sande W. Combining two antifungal agents does not enhance survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Madurella mycetomatis. Trop Med Int Health. 2017 Mar 25. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12871. 

 

4.Ahmed AA, van de Sande W, Fahal AH. Mycetoma laboratory diagnosis: Review article. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2017; 11(8): e0005638. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005638

 

5. Wendy van de Sande, Ahmed Fahal, Sarah Abdalla Ahmed, Julian Alberto Serrano, Alexandro Bonifaz, Ed Zijlstra. Closing the mycetoma knowledge gap. Medical Mycology. 2017; 0,1–12 doi:10.1093/mmy/myx061

 

6. Siddig EE, Fahal AH. Histopathological Approach for the Diagnosis of Mycetoma Causative Agents: A Mini Review. J CytolHistol. 2017; 8: 466. doi: 10.4172/2157-7099.1000466.

 

7. Saad ESA, Fahal AH (2017) Broncho-pleuro-cutaneous fistula and pneumothorax: Rare challenging complications of chest wall eumycetoma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 11(9): e0005737. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005737

 

8. Ahmed H M Ibrahim, Ali Mohamed Osman, A H Fahal, Alnada A M Ibrahim. The use of a documentary drama film to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of an endemic village population towards mycetoma at Sennar State, Sudan. Khartoum Med J. 2017; 10(2):1385 – 1391

 

9. Kloezen W, Parel F, Brüggemann R, Asouit K, Helvert-van Poppel, M, Fahal A, Mouton J, van de Sande, Wendy WJ. Amphotericin B and terbinafine but not the azoles prolong survival in Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Madurella mycetomatis. Medical Mycology, 2017, 0, 1–10. Doi: 10.1093/mmy/myx064

 

10. Queiroz-Telles F, Fahal AH, Falci DR, Caceres DH, Chiller T, Pasqualotto AC. Neglected endemic mycoses. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017; 17(11):e367-e377. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30306-7. Epub 2017 Jul 31.


2016

11. EE Zijlstra, WWJ van de Sande, AH Fahal. Mycetoma, Mycetoma: A Long Journey from Neglect. Editorial, PLoS NTD, DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004244 January 21, 2016.

 

12. Zijlstra EE, van de Sande WW, Welsh O, Mahgoub ES, Goodfellow M, Fahal AH. Mycetoma. Lancet Infect Dis. 16. 1, 100–112, January 2016. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00359-X

 

13. Scolding PS, Abbas MAQ, Omer RF, Fahal AH. Madurella mycetomatis-Induced Massive Shoulder Joint Destruction: A Management Challenge. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2016; 10(8): e0004849. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004849

 

14. Omer RF, Seif EL Din N, Abdel Rahim FA, Fahal AH. Hand Mycetoma: The Mycetoma Research Centre Experience and Literature Review. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2016;10(8): e0004886. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004886

 

15. Mohamed ElSW, Seif El Din N, Fahal AH. Multiple Mycetoma Lung Secondaries from Knee Eumycetoma: An Unusual Complication. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2016 Jul 21; 10(7):e0004735. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004735. eCollection 2016.

 

16. Fahal AH, Finkelman MA, Zhang Y, Van de Sande WW. Detection of (1→3)-β-D-glucan in eumycetoma patients. J ClinMicrobiol. 2016 Jul 20. pii: JCM.01478-16.

 

17. Nasr A, Abushouk A, Hamza A, Siddig E, Fahal AH. Th-1, Th-2 Cytokines Profile among Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma Patients. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2016 Jul 19; 10(7):e0004862. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004862. eCollection 2016.

 

18. Suleiman SH, Wadaella el S, Fahal AH. The Surgical Treatment of Mycetoma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2016 Jun 23; 10(6):e0004690. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004690. eCollection 2016

 

19. Smit S, Derks MF, Bervoets S, Fahal A, van Leeuwen W, van Belkum A, van de Sande WW. Genome Sequence of Madurella mycetomatis mm55, Isolated from a Human Mycetoma Case in Sudan. Genome Announc. 2016 May 26;4(3). pii: e00418-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00418-16

 

20. ELbadawi HS, Mahgoub E, Mahmoud N, Fahal AH. Use of immunoblotting in testing Madurella mycetomatis specific antigen. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2016 May;110(5):312-6. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trw023.

 

21. Emmanuel E. Siddig, Badr EL Din M. Yousif, Ali M. Edris, Ahmed H. Fahal. The Touch Imprint Cytology: A simple method for the diagnosis of mycetoma causative agents. Khartoum Med J –in press

 

22. Wadal A, Elhassan TA, Zein HA, Abdel-Rahman ME, Fahal AH.  Predictors of Post-operative Mycetoma Recurrence Using Machine-Learning Algorithms: The Mycetoma Research Center Experience. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2016; 10(10): e0005007. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005007

 

23. Mohamed NA, Fahal AH. Mycetoma Pulmonary Secondaries from a Gluteal Eumycetoma: An Unusual Presentation. PLoSNegl. Trop Dis. 2016; 10(10): e0004945. doi:10.1371/journal. pntd.0004945.


2015

24. Nenoff P, van de Sande WW, Fahal AH, Reinel D, Schöfer H. Eumycetoma and actinomycetoma - an update on causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy. J EurAcadDermatolVenereol. 2015 Feb 27. doi: 10.1111/jdv.13008.]

 

25. Ahmed SA, de Hoog GS, Stevens DA, Fahal AH, van de Sande WW. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of coelomycete agents of black grain eumycetoma to eight antifungals. Med Mycol. 2015; 53(3):295-301. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myu098. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

 

26. Ahmed SA, Kloezen W, Fahal AH, de Hoog GS, van de Sande WW. In Vitro Interaction of Currently Used Azoles with Terbinafine against Madurella mycetomatis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Feb; 59(2):1373-4. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04487-14.

 

27. Fahal A, Mahgoub ES, EL Hassan AM, Jacoub AO, Hassan D.  Head and Neck Mycetoma: The Mycetoma Research Centre Experience. PLoSNegl Trop Dis (2015) 9(3): e0003587. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003587

 

28. Elfadil H, Fahal A, Kloezen W, Ahmed EM, van de Sande W. The In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sudanese Medicinal Plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the Eumycetoma Major Causative Agent. PLoSNegl Trop Dis (2015) 9(3): e0003488. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003488

 

29. Fahal AH, EL Hassan AM, Mahgoub ES, Rahman ME, Mycetoma in the Sudan: The Mycetoma Research Centre Update.‎PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2015 Mar 27; 9(3):e0003679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003679. eCollection 2015 Mar. 

 

30. HalaTaha, Ahmed Fahal, Wendy W. J. van de Sande. Mycetoma:  Epidemiology, Treatment Challenges and Progress.  Mycetoma: epidemiology, treatment challenges and progress. Res Rep Trop Med.  2015:6 31–36

 

31. Wendy WJ van de Sande, Marian ten Kate, Wim van Vianen, Ahmed Fahal, Irma Bakker-Woudenberg. Amphotericin B but not itraconazole is able to prevent grain formation in experimental M. mycetomatis mycetoma in mice. Br J Dermatol. 2015 Jul 6. doi: 10.1111/bjd.14025. 

 

32. Kloezen W, van Helvert-van Poppel M, Fahal AH, van de Sande WWJ.  A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2015; 9(7): e0003926. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003926

 

33. Eshraga A. Ezaldeen, Raif Mohamed Ahmed, EL SammaniWadella, Nadia EL Dawi, Ahmed Hassan Fahal. Actinomycetoma induced Cervical Spinal Cord Compression: A rare and serious complication. JMM Case Reports. 2015; DOI 10.1099/jmmcr.0.000074.

 

34. Ahmed SA, van de Sande WW, Desnos-Ollivier M, Fahal AH, Mhmoud NA, de Hoog GS. Application of Isothermal Amplification Techniques for the Identification of Madurella mycetomatis, the Prevalent Agent of Human Mycetoma. J ClinMicrobiol. 2015 Aug 5. pii: JCM.01544-15. 

 

35. Verwer PEB, Notenboom CC, Eadie K, Fahal AH, Verbrugh HA, van de Sande WWJ.  A polymorphism in the chitotriosidase gene associated with risk of mycetoma due to Madurella mycetomatis - a retrospective study PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2015 Sep 2;9(9):e0004061. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004061. eCollection 2015.

 

36. Najwa MA, Badr M Yousif, Ahmed Fahal, Wendy van de Sande. The nature of the M. mycetomatis mycetoma granuloma tissue pigments. Khartoum Med J.  2015; 8 (2): 1105 – 1110.

 

37. Ahmed Hassan Fahal.  Aggressive actinomycetoma. Khartoum Med J.  2015; 8 (2): 1116.

 

38. Emmanuel E. Siddig, Aghapy E. Siddig, Ali Edreis, Ahmed Omer Almobarak, Ahmed H Fahal. The Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration for cytology for the Diagnosis of Breast lesions in low sources area. Khartoum Med J.  2015; 8(3):1153-1157.

 

39. Emmanuel Edward Siddig, Najwa A. Mhmoud, Ahmed Hassan Fahal. Identification of M. mycetomatis fungus in pleural fluid and sputum of a patient with aggressive gluteal eumycetoma with pulmonary spread. Khartoum Med J 2015; 8(3): 1164-1167.

 

2014

 

40. Khamis, AAG, Ali BM, Jacoub AO, Suleiman SH, Fahal AH,  ‎Knowledge, Attitudes Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Surgical Staff at Khartoum State ‎towards the Hepatitis B virus infection.‎ Khartoum Med J  2014;7(1): 932- 940. 

 

41. Fahal AH, Shaheen S‎. Jones DH. Orthopaedic Aspects of Mycetoma: Instructional Review. Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B: 420–5. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.96B3.31421.

 

42. Al Dawi AF, Mustafa MI, Fahal AH, EL Hassan AM, Bakhiet SM, Mahgoub ES, Mergani A, Mukhtar MM. The Association of HLA-DRB1 & HLA-DQB1 and the occurrence of Eumycetoma. Khartoum Med J – 2013; 6(3): 923 - 929

 

43. Geneugelij K, Kloezen W, Fahal AH, van de Sande WWJ.  Active matrix metalloprotease-9 is associated with the collagen capsule surrounding the M. mycetomatis grain in mycetoma.  PLoSNegl Trop Dis Published: March 27, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002754.

 

44. Wendy W. J. van de Sande, El Sheikh Maghoub, Ahmed H. Fahal, Michael Goodfellow, Oliverio Welsh, Ed Zijlstra. The Mycetoma Knowledge Gap: Identification of Research Priorities.  PLoSNegl Trop Dis Published: March 27, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002667.

 

45. Fahal AH, Mahgoub ES, EL Hassan ESM,  ELTayeb E, EL Hassan AM.  Eye Eumycetoma: The Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan Case Series & Literature Review.  Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice 6 June 2014, doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000157.

 

46. Sarah Abdalla Ahmed, Wendy Kloezen,  Frederick Duncanson, Ed Zijlstra, G. Sybren de Hoog, Ahmed H. Fahal, Wendy WJ van de Sande. Madurella mycetomatis is highly susceptible towards Ravuconazole. PLoSNegl Trop Dis  June 19, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002942

 

47. Najwa  A Mhmoud,  Ahmed H Fahal,  El Sheikh Mahgoub, Wendy W J van de ‎Sande. The combination of Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole proved to be ‎effective and safe for treatment of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma patients ‎with secondary Staphylococcus aureus infection. PLoSNegl Trop Dis June 19, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002959.

 

48. Wendy W. J. van de Sande, Ahmed H. Fahal, Michael Goodfellow, El Sheikh Maghoub, Oliverio Welsh, Ed Zijlstra. The merits and pitfalls of the currently used diagnostic tools in mycetoma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis July 03, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002918

 

49. Ahmed SA, van de Sande WJ, Stevens DA , Fahal AH, van Diepeningen A, Menken SBJ,  and de Hoog GS. Revision of agents of black-grain eumycetoma in the order Pleosporales. Persoonia 2014; 33: 141–154.

 

50. Samy AM, van de Sande WWJ, Fahal AH, Peterson AT Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2014; 8(10): e3250. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003250

 

51. Welsh O, Al-Abdely HM, Salinas-Carmona MC, Fahal AH (2014) Mycetoma Medical Therapy. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 8(10): e3218. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003218. http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003218

 

52. Fahal A, Mahgoub ES, EL Hassan AM, Abdel-Rahman ME, Alshambaty Y, Ed E Zijlstra A New Model for Management of Mycetoma in the Sudan. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2014, 8(10): e3271. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003271 

 

 53. Fahal AH. Mycetoma CommDermato J. 2014; 10: 15-17.

 

54. Swierstra J, Debets S, de Vogel C, Lemmens-den Toom N, Verkaik N, Ramdani-Bouguessa N, Jonkman MF, van Dijl JM, Fahal A, van Belkum A, van Wamel W. IgG4 subclass-specific responses to Staphylococcus aureus antigens shed new light on host-pathogen interaction. Infect Immun. 2014 Nov 17. pii: IAI.02286-14.

 

55. Sarah A. Ahmed, Bert Gerrits van den Ende, Ahmed H. Fahal, Wendy W. J. van de Sande, GS. deHoog. Rapid Identification of Black Grain Eumycetoma causative agents Using Rolling Circle Amplification. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2014 Dec 4;8(12):e3368. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003368. eCollection 2014 Dec.

 

56. Kimberly Eadie, Ahmed Fahal, Wendy WJ van de Sande. In vitro activity of antiseptic solutions against M. mycetomatis, implications on eumycetoma management. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Nov 27. doi: 10.1111/bjd.13570. [Epub ahead of print]

 

57. Suleiman HK, Ibrahim OM, EL Hassan AM, Fahal AH.  Fat Necrosis of the Breast: in diabetic patients.  Khartoum Med J. 2014; 7:2, 1000 – 1004.

 

58. Ahmed AK Ahmed, SH Suleiman, Fahal AH Aggressive Uncontrolled Gluteal Eumycetoma Invading the Pelvic Cavity and ‎the Spinal Cord:  Unusual Clinical Presentation. Khartoum Med J. 2014; 7(2): 1005 – 1007.

 

59Ahmed SA, Kloezen W, Fahal AH, de Hoog GS, van de Sande WW. In Vitro Interaction of Currently Used Azoles with TerbinafineAgainst Madurella mycetomatis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Dec 8. pii: AAC.04487-14. [Epub ahead of print]

 

60. Ahmed SA, de Hoog GS, Stevens DA, Fahal AH and van de Sande WJ. "In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Coelomycete Agents of Black Grain Eumycetoma to Eight Antifungals Med Mycol. 2015 Jan 28. pii: myu098. [Epub ahead of print]. 

 

61. Hay RJ, Fahal AH. Mycetoma: an old and still neglected tropical disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015; 109(3):169-70. doi:10.1093/trstmh/trv003.

 

62. Ahmed SA, van de Sande WW, Stevens DA, Fahal A, van Diepeningen AD, Menken SB, de Hoog GS. Revision of agents of black-grain eumycetoma in the order Pleosporales. Persoonia. 2014 Dec; 33:141-54. doi: 10.3767/003158514X684744. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

 

2013

63. Fahal, AH, The Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan: a success story that need support. IJSR. 2013 3(1): 1-13.

 

64. Ibrahim AI, El Hassan AM, Fahal A, van de Sande WW. A histopathological exploration of the Madurella mycetomatis grain.PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57774. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057774. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

 

65. Suleiman AM, Fahal AH. Oral cavity eumycetoma: a rare and unusual condition. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013; 115(4): e23-5.

 

66. Ehab AM Elagab, Maowia M Mukhtar, Ahmed H Fahal, Wendy WJ van de Sande. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Mycetoma Patients React Differently to Madurella mycetomatis Antigens than Healthy Endemic Controls. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(4): e2081. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002081. Print 2013 Apr.

 

67. Suleiman HS, EL Hassan LAM, Fahal AH. Long Standing Gluteal Mass:  An Uncommon Presentation of Tuberculosis. Khartoum Med J 2013; 6(1): 864 – 867.

 

68. Osman AH, Ezaldeen EA, Ali BM, Jacoub AO, Suleiman SH, Fahal AH. Poor Infusion Therapy Knowledge among Young Doctors in Two Tertiary Teaching Hospitals in Khartoum State. Khartoum Med J 2013; 6(1): 854 – 858.

 

69. vanHellemond JJ, Vonk AG, de Vogel C, Koelewijn R, Vaessen N, Fahal AH, van Belkum A, van de Sande WW. Association of eumycetoma and schistosomiasis. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2013 May 23;7(5):e2241. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002241. Print 2013 May

 

70. vanBelkum A, Fahal A, van de Sande WW Mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis: a completely neglected medico-social dilemma. AdvExp Med Biol. 2013; 764:179-89.

 

71. Fahal AH, Elkhawad AO.  Managing mycetoma: guidelines for best practice Expert ‎Rev Dermatol 2013; 8(3)‎: 301-307.

 

72. GS de Hoog, S. Abdalla Ahmed, MJ Najafzadeh, DA Sutton, M. SaradeghiKeisari, AH Fahal, U. Eberhart, B. Stielow, GJ Verkley, LianXin, WWJ van de Sande.  Phylogenetic findings suggest possible new habitat and routes of infection of human eumycetoma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2013 May 16; 7(5):e2229. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002229. Print 2013 May 

 

73. Najwa A. Mhmoud, Ahmed H. Fahal, Wendy W. J. Van De Sande. The association between the interleukin-10 cytokine and CC chemokine ligand 5 polymorphismsand mycetoma granuloma formation. Med Mycol 2013, 51, 527–533.

 

74. Mhmoud N, Fahal A, Wendy van de Sande WJ. Polymorphisms of interleukin-10 and CCL5 Genes in Tuberculosis.  Trop Med Int Health. 2013; 18(9): 1119-1127.  doi:10.1111/tmi.12141

 

75. Ezaldeen EA, Fahal AH, Osman A. Mycetoma herbal treatment: the Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan experience. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2013 Aug 22;7(8):e2400. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002400. e Collection 2013.

 

 

 Publications

                                                                                                                                                                                                        

1. Ibrahim A, Fahal AH.  Recovery of radiologically functionless obstructed kidneys. Br J Urol. 1984; 56: 113-115. PMID: 6498428.

2. Fahal AH, Ibrahim A. Post - prostatectomy auto-irrigation with furosemide in the tropics. Pharmatherapeutic. 1986; 4(9): 590-594. PMID: 3094037.

3. Fahal AH. Acute Scrotum - Review article. Post Gradate Doctor. 1987; 10(5): 272-278.

4. Fahal AH, Yagi KI. Skin Endometriosis in Sudan. Trop Geogr Med. 1987; 39: 383-384. PMID: 3451419. 

5. Fahal AH, Hassan MA. Fournier’s Gangrene in Khartoum. Br J Urol. 1988; 61: 451-454. PMID: 3293689.

6. Ahmed ME, Fahal AH. Preoperative fasting state in patients undergoing elective surgery. Emirates Med J. 1988; 6: 135-137.

7. EL Nour SAM, Fahal AH. Vertebral Solitary Osteochondroma. Saudi Med J. 1988; 9(6): 622-626.

8. Fahal AH, McDollan A M, Marston A.  Femorofemoral bypass in unilateral iliac artery occlusion. Br J Surg. 1989; 76: 22-25. PMID: 2917255.

9. Ahmed ME, Fahal AH. Acute gluteal abscesses. Injectable chloroquine as a cause.     J Trop Med Hyg. 1989; 92: 317-319.

10. Babekir ARE, Fahal AH, HedietAlla A. Oesophageal carcinoma in Sudan. Trop Doct. 1989; 19: 33-34. . PMID: 2922814. 

11. Fahal  AH. Gad EL Rab MO, EL Abdin SZ. The immune status of Sudanese patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer. Sudan Med J. 1990; 28(1-4): 23-29.

12. EL Zaki K, Ahmed MELM, EL Hassan AM, Yousif MA, Fahal AH.  Acute gluteal abscess following intramuscular chloroquine injection: A clinical and experimental study.  J Trop Med Hyg. 1991; 98: 206-209. PMID: 2051527.

13. Fahal AH, Hassan MA.  Mycetoma. Br J Surg. 1992; 79(11): 1138-1141. PMID: 1467883.

14. Fahal AH, Sahil RB, Suliman SH, Hassan MA.  Acute scrotum conditions in Khartoum. Sudan  Med J. 1992; (1): 29-39.

15. Ezedeen K, Fahal AH,  Ahmed  ME.  Management of hand infection in Khartoum. East Afr Med J. 1992; 69(11): 616- 618. PMID: 1298617.

16. Fahal AH, Suliman SH, Yagi  KI,  Gadir  AFA,  Mukhtar  BI, Malik MOA.  Salivary gland tumours in Sudan. East Afr Med J. 1993; 70(4): 213-216.

17. Fahal AH, Anwer AG, Suliman SH, Hassan MA.  Appendicular mass in Khartoum. Sudan Med J. 1993; 39(1): 86-97.

18. Fahal AH, Suliman SH, Sharfi AR, EL Mahdi  MEA.  Acute idiopathic scrotal oedema in association with diabetic septic foot. Diabetes Res ClinPract. 1993; 21(2-3):197-200. PMID: 8269822.

19. Fahal AH, Suliman SH, Gadir AFA, EL Hag IA, EL Amin FI, Gumaa SA, Mahgoub ES. Abdominal wall mycetoma: an unusual presentation. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994; 88(1):78-80. PMID: 8154012.

20. Fahal AH, Suliman SH. Clinical presentation of mycetoma. Sudan Med J. 1994; 32: 46-66.

21. Fahal AH, El Hassan AM,  Abdelalla AO, Sheik HE, Cystic mycetoma: an unusual clinical presentation of Madurella mycetomatis.  Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998; 92:6-67.

22. Fahal AH. Pneumatosis cystoid intestinalis. Review article. Sudan Med J. 1994; 32(1): 1-8.

23. Fahal AH, EL Toum EA, EL Hassan AM, Gumaa SA, Mahgoub ES.  A preliminary study on the ultrastructure of Actinomadura pelletieri and its host tissue reaction.   J Med Vet Mycol. 1994; 32: 343-348. PMID: 7844700.

24. EL Hassan AM, Fahal AH, EL Hag IA, Khalil EAG. The pathology of mycetoma: Light microscopic and ultrastructural features. Sudan Med J. 1994; 32: 23-45.

25. Fahal AH, Hassan MA, Sanhouri M. Surgical treatment of mycetoma. Sudan Med J. 1994; 32: 98-104.

26. Fahal AH, Barka OZ, EL Lider AM. Pneumatosis cystoid intestinalis. (A case report). East Afr Med J. 1994; 71(6): 401-402. PMID: 7835266.

27. Fahal AH, EL Toum EA, EL Hassan AM, Gumaa SA, Mahgoub ES. Host tissue reaction to Madurella mycetomatis: New classification. J Med Vet Mycol. 1995; 33: 15-17. 

28. EL Hag IA, Fahal AH, Khalil EAG. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mycetoma. ActaCytologica. 1996; 40(3): 461-46.

29. Fahal AH, EL Hag IA, EL Hassan AM, Hashim FA.  Leishmanialcholecystitisand  colitis in a patient with visceral leishmaniasis.  Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1995; 89: 284. PMID: 7660434. 

30. Fahal AH, EL Razig SA, Suliman SH, Ibrahim SZ, Tigani AE. Gastrointestinal tract cancer in association with hepatitis and HIV infection. East Afr Med J.1995; 72(7): 424-426. PMID: 7660434. 

31. Fahal AH, Omer SM, El Razig SA, Ali ABE, Mahdi EMA, Mahgoub ES.  Thyroid function in mycetoma patients. East Afr Med J. 1995; 72(7): 454-456. PMID: 7498029.

32. Fahal AH, Nasr A.  Scrotal sepsis - Review article. Surgery. 1995; 13(8): 2-3.

33. Fahal AH, Azziz KAA, Suliman SH, Galib HV, Mahgoub ES. Dual infection with mycetoma and tuberculosis. East Afr Med J. 1995; 72(11): 749-750. PMID: 8904072.

34. Musa MT, Fahal AH, EL Arabi YE. Aspiration sclerotherapy for Hydroceles in the Tropics. Br J Urol. 1995; 76:488-490. PMID: 7551889.

35. Fahal AH, Gadir AFA, Nasr IO.  Penile ossification. East Afr Med J. 1996; 73(4): 276-277. PMID: 8706616.

36. Mohamed ARO, Fahal AH, Venge V. Immunoglobulin and inflammatory markers profile in mycetoma. East Afr Med J. 1996; 73(4): 212 (Letter). PMID: 8698027.

37. FadlAlla AI, Fahal AH, Ahmed ME, Hassan MA.  Pattern of postoperative pyrexia in Khartoum. East Afr Med J. 1996; 73 (1): 78-80. PMID: 8625871.

38. Sourkati EOM, Fahal AH, Suliman SH, EL Razig SA. Intestinal obstruction in Khartoum. East Afr Med J. 1996; 73(5): 31-34. PMID: 8756035.

39. Fahal AH, Yagi HI, EL Hassan AM. Mycetoma induced palatal deficiency and pharyngeal plexus dysfunction. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1996; 90: 676-677. PMID: 9015514

40. Fahal AH, Sheikh HE, EL Hassan AM. Pathological fracture in mycetoma. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.  1996; 90: 675-676. PMID: 9015513.

41. Fahal AH, Sharfi AR, Sheikh HE, EL Hassan AM. Mycetoma: Uncommon complication. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1996; 89: 550-552.

42. Fahal AH, Sadig ME, Suliman SH, EL Razig SA, Mahgoub ES. Lack of association between ABO blood groups and Rh factor and the tendency to develop mycetoma. East Afr Med J. 1996; 11: 769. (Letter). PMID: 8997873

43. EL Mahdi EMA, Kadaro AY, Fahal AH, EL Awad MS, EL Bagir MN, Mohammed SA, Idris AET, Muktar E. Type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Sudan. Epidemiological features and complications. Sudan Med J. 1996; 34(1): 12-18.

44. Fahal AH, EL Hag IA, Gadir AFA, EL Lider AR, Baraka OZ, EL Hassan AM. The blood supply and vasculature in mycetoma. J Med Vet Mycol. 1997; 35: 101-106. PMID: 9147269

45. Fahal AH, Sheikh HE, EL Lider MA, Homeida MA, EL Arabi YE, Mahgoub ES. Ultrasonic imaging in mycetoma. Br J Surg. 1997; 78: 765-766. PMID: 9278658

46. Fahal AH, Barido NO, Gadir AFA, EL Arabi YE. Calculi within an anal fistula tract. Br J Surg. 1994; 84:1001. PMID: 9240147. 

47. Ahmed AOA, Fahal AH, Abugroun EAM, Zijlstra E, Belkum A van, Verbrugh HA. Unexpected high prevelance of secondary bacterial infection in mycetoma. J ClinMicrobiol. 1998; 36(3):  850-851.

48. ge PMID: 9817883. [Download free Article].

49. Fahal AH, Sharfy ARA. Vulval mycetoma: a rare cause of bladder outlet obstruction. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998; 92: 652-653. PMID: 10326112.

50. Ahmed AO, Mukhtar MM, Kools-Sijmons M, Fahal AH, de Hoog S, van den Ende BG, Zijstara, ED, Verburgh H, Abugroun ESA, EL Hassan AM, van Beklkum A. Development of a species-specific PCR RFLP procedure for the identification of Madurella mycetomatis. J ClinMicrobiol. 1999; 37(10):3175-8. PMID: 10488173. [Download Free Article]

51. Fahal AH, Zijlstar EE. Keloid en hypertofishelittekens WCS Nieuws 1998; 2(6): 21-25.

52. Fahal AH. The management of mycetoma. Post-Grad -Caribbean. 2000;16(4):229-232.

53. Mahdi SEI, Ahmed AO, Boelens H, Ott A,  Abugroun, ES, van Belkum A, Verbrugh H,   Fahal AH.  An epidemiological study on the occurrence of StaphylococusAureus in superficial abscesses of patients presenting for surgery in a teaching hospital in Khartoum, Sudan. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2000; 29:155-162. PMID: 11024355. [Download Free Article].

54. EL Hassan AM, Fahal AH, Ahmed AO, Ismail A, Veress B. The immunopathology of actinomycetoma lesions caused by Streptomyces somaliensis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001: 95(1); 89-92. PMID: 11280076

55. Ahmed AOA, Adelmann D, Fahal AH, Verbrugh HA, Van Belkum A, De Hoog S. Environmental occurrence of Madurella mycetomatis, major agent of human eumycetoma in Sudan. J ClinMicrobiol. 2002 40(3): 1031-1036. PMID: 11880433. [Download Free Article]

56. Mohamed T Musa, AH Fahal, YE Elarabi. Gallstone ileus following cholecysto-enteric fistula. SMJ 2002; 40(1):39-40

57. Masri MA, Abdel Seed NM, Fahal AH, Romano M, Baralle F, El Hassam AM, Ibrahim ME. Minor role for BRCA2 (exon11) and p53 (exon 5-9) among Sudanese breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 2002; 71(2):145-7. PMID: 11883440.

58. Ahmed AOA, van Vianen W, ten Kate M, van de Sande WWJ, Van Belkum A, Fahal AH, Verbrugh HA, Bakker- Woudenberg IAJM. A murine model of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma.  FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003; 37: 29-36. PMID: 12770757. [Download Free Article].

59. Ahmed AOA, van de Sande W, Van Belkum A, Verbrugh HA, Fahal  A H, van Belkum A. Madurella mycetomatis strains from mycetoma lesions in Sudanese patients are clonal. J ClinMicrobiol.  2003; 41(10):4537-41 PMID: 14532179. [Download free article]

60. AbdBagi ME, Fahal AH, Sheik HE, Abdul Wahab O, Taifoor MK, Osmanr EM. High incidence of pathological fracture in mycetoma. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.  2003; 97(5):582-4. PMID: 15307432

61. Fahal AH. Mycetoma thorn on the flesh Review article. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.  2004; 98(1):3-11. Review.

62. Ahmed AO, van de Sande WW, van Vianen W, van BelkumA, Fahal AH, Verbrugh HA, Bakker-WoudenbergIA.In vitro susceptibilities of Madurella mycetomatis to itraconazole and amphotericin B assessed by a modified NCCLS method and a viability-based 2,3-Bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) assay. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004; 48(7):2742-6. PMID: 15215141. [Download Free Article].

63. Ahmed AO, van Leeuwen W, Fahal A, van de Sande W, Verbrugh H, van Belkum A. Mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis:  a neglected infectious burden.  Lancet Infect Dis. 2004; 4(9):566-74. Review. PMID: 15336224

64. Mohamed T Musa, E Elawad, AH Fahal, ME Ahmed. Cholelithiasis in males (Sudan). SMJ 2004; 41(1):16-17

65. EL Hassan AM, Fahal AH, Veress B. Cell phenotypes, immunoglobulins, and complement in lesion of eumycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis. Sud J Dermato 2006; 4 (1):2-5.

66. van de Sande WW, Fahal A, Verbrugh H, van Belkum A. Polymorphisms in genes involved in innate immunity predispose toward mycetoma susceptibility. J  Immunol. 2007; 179(5):3065-74. PMID: 17709521. [Download Free Article].

67. van de Sande WW, de Kat J, Coppens J, Ahmed AO, Fahal A, Verbrugh H, van Belkum A. Melanin biosynthesis in Madurella mycetomatis and its effect on susceptibility to itraconazole and ketoconazole. Microbes Infect. 2007; 9: 1114-1123. PMID: 17644456.

68. van de Sande WW, Fahal A, Verbrugh H, van Belkum A. Madurella mycetomatis compounds cross-reactive with galactomannan are detectable in culture supernatant but not in serum. J Med Microbiol. 2007; 56: 869-70. PMID: 17510278. [Download Free Article].

69. Ahmed AA, van de Sande WW, Fahal A, Bakker-Woudenberg I, Verbrugh H, van Belkum A. Management of mycetoma: major challenge in tropical mycoses with limited international recognition.  CurrOpin Infect Dis. 2007; 20(2):146-51. PMID: 17496572.

70. van de Sande WW, Fahal AH, Riley TV, Verbrugh H, van Belkum A. In vitro susceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis, prime agent of Madura foot, to tea tree oil and artemisinin. J AntimicrobChemother. 2007; 59(3):553-5 PMID: 17324961. [Download Free Article].

71. Fahal AH. Medical Education in the Sudan. The strengths and weakness. Medical Teach. 2007; 29(9):910-14. PMID: 18158664.

72. Hussein A, Ahmed AEM, Fahal AH, Mahmoud A, Sidig A. Awad K, Ahmed EM. Cervical cord compression secondary to mycetoma infection. Sud J Pub Health. 2007; 2(2): 112-115.

73. Quintana ET, Wierzbicka K, Mackiewicz P, Osman A, Fahal AH, Hamid ME, Zakrzewska-Czerwinska J, Maldonado LA, Goodfellow M. Streptomyces sudanensis sp. nov., a new pathogen isolated from patients with actinomycetoma. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2008; 93(3):305-13. PMID: 18157699.

74. DejanStojković, Marina Soković, Ana Džamić, MihailoRistić, Ahmed Fahal SilvanaPetrović, Ivana Djujić Sami Khalid. In vitro Susceptibility of Actinomadura madurae Clinical Isolates to Turpentine Oil of Pinuspinaster and α-Pinene. Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade. 2008; 60 (4): 697-701. 

75. Abd El-Bagi MEB, Fahal AH.  Mycetoma revisited. Incidence of various radiographic signs. Saudi Med J. 2009;30(4):529-33. PMID: 19370281.

76. Yousif BM, Fahal AH, Yahia MY. The Cell Block Technique: A New Diagnostic Tool for Mycetoma. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.  2010; 104(1):6-9.

77. Fahal AH, Abu Sabaa. AH. Mycetoma in Children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010; 104: 117–12. PMID: 19716573.

78. Fahal, AH. Management of mycetoma. Expert Rev Dermatol. 2010; 5(1), 87–93.

79. van de Sande WWJ, Fahal AH, Tavakol M, van Belkum A, Polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase and cytochrome p450 subfamily 19 genes predispose towards Madurella mycetomatis-induced mycetoma susceptibility. Med Mycol. 26.2.2010; 48(7):959-68.  PMID: 20184498

80. van de Sande WW, Fahal AH, Bakker-Woudenberg IA, van Belkum A. Madurella Mycetomatis is not susceptible to the Echinocandin class of antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 june, 54(6):2738-2740. PMID: 20350944

81. Darwish A, Nasr AO, Elhassan LA and Fahal AH Cyclosporine-A Therapy induced Multiple Bilateral Breast and Accessory Axillary Breast Fibroadenoma.  J Med Case Reports.   2010; 11(4): 267. PMID: 20701786.

82. Fahal AH. Continuing Professional Development in Medical & Health Professions. International J Sud Research, 2010; 1(1): 29-34.

83. Fahal AH, Rahman I A, El-Hassan AM, EL Rahman ME, Zijlstra EE. The efficacy of itraconazole in the treatment of patients with eumycetoma due to Madurella mycetomatis.  Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011; 105(3):127-32. 

84. Alex van Belkum, Ahmed H. Fahal, Wendy W.J va n de Sande. In Vitro Susceptibility of Madurella Mycetomatis to Posaconazole and Terbinafine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.  2011; 55(4):1771-3. 

85. Zubair Amin, Jack Boulet, David A. Cook, Rachel Ellaway, Ahmad Fahal, Roger Kneebone, Moira Maley, Doris Ostergaard, GomindaPonamperuma, Andy Wearn, AmitaiZiv. Technology-Enabled Technology-enabled assessment of health professions education: Consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 conference. Medical Teacher 2011; 33( 5): 364–369

86. Fahal AH, EL Sheik H, El Hassan AM. Venous Varicosity in Mycetoma. Sudan Med J. 2011; 47(1): 20-24. 

87. Abdelrahman MYH, Mustafa MB, Fahal AH. Educational technology in surgery. Sudan Med J 2010; 46(3):152-159.

88. Fahal AH. Mycetoma. Review article, Khartoum Med J. 2011; 4(1): 514-523.

89. Omer TA, EL Hassan LAM, EL Hassan AM, Fahal AH A rare presentation of Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis and CaecalAngio-lipoma in one patient. Sudan Med J. 2011; 47(3):165-168 

90. de Klerk  N, de Vogel C, Fahal AH, van belkum A, van de Sande W. fructose-bisphosphatealdolase and pyruvate kinase, two novel immunogens in madurella mycetomatis.  Med Mycol. 2012; 50(2):143-51. 

91. Paul A Hoskisson, Ralph Kirby, VartulSangal, Nicholas P Tucker, JolantaZakrzewska-Czerwinska, KatarzynaWierzbicka, Paul R Herron, Chun-Jong Chu, Dr. govindchandra, Ahmed Fahal, Michael Goodfellow. The draft genome sequence of the human pathogen Streptomyces somaliensis, a significant cause of actinomycetoma.  J Bacteriol. 2012; 194(13):3544-5. 

92. Zein HAM, Fahal AH, Mahgoub, ES, EL Hassan T, Abdel Rahman, ME,  The Predictors of Cure, Amputation & Follow-up dropout among Mycetoma Patients as seen at The Mycetoma Research Centre,  University of Khartoum. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012; 106(11):639-44.  

93. Mhmoud NA, Ahmed SA, Fahal AH, de Hoog GS, Gerrits van den Ende AH, van de Sande WW. Pleurostomophoraochracea, a novel agent of human eumycetoma with yellow grains.JClinMicrobiol. 2012; 50(9):2987-94

94. Mhmoud NA, Fahal AH, van de Sande WW. CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in HIV-negative tuberculosis patients in Sudan. J Infect. 2012; 65(4):370-2.

95. deHoog GS, van Diepeningen AD, Mahgoub el-S, van de Sande WW. New species of Madurella, causative agents of black-grain mycetoma. J ClinMicrobiol. 2012; 50(3):988-94.

96. Fahal AH, Arbab MAR, EL Hassan AM. Aggressive Clinical Presentation of Mycetoma due to Actinomadura Pelletierii. Khartoum Med J.  2012; 5(1): 699-702.

97. Mohamed, EW, Suleiman HS, Fadella, AI, Fahal, AH. Aggressive Perineal and Pelvic Eumycetoma: An unusual and challenging problem to treat. Khartoum Med J.  2012; (5)2:771-774.

98. Wendy Kloezen, Jacques F. Meis, IlseCurfs-Breuker, Ahmed Fahal, Wendy W. J. van de Sande. In vitro antifungal activity of isavuconazole to Madurella mycetomatis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012; 56(11):6054-6. 

99. Mohamed EW, Mohamed, ENA, Yousif, BM, Fahal, AH. Tongue Actinomycetoma due to Actinomadura madurae: A rare clinical presentation. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012; 70(11):e622-4.   

100. EL Shamy, ME, Fahal AH, Shakir MY, Homedia MMA. New MRI Grading System for the Diagnosis and Management of Mycetoma. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012; 106(12):738-42. 

101. Fahal AH, van de Sandy, WW. The Epidemiology of mycetoma. Current Fungal Infection Reports. 2012;  6( 4): 320-326

102. Mhmoud NA, Fahal AH, van de Sande WW. The association between the interleukin-10 cytokine and CC chemokine ligand 5 polymorphisms and mycetoma granuloma formation. Med Mycol. 2012 Dec 4. [Epub ahead of print

103. Mohamed YH Abdelrahman, Mayson B Mustafa, Shahd A Osman, Hanadi Hassan, Ahmed Hassanain, Ahmed H. Fahal. Assessing information and communication technology in surgical training, Sudan as example. South Sudan Med J. 2012; 5(3): 66-68.

104. Fahal, AH, The Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan: a success story that need support. IJSR. 2013 3(1): 1-13.

105. Ibrahim AI, El Hassan AM, Fahal A, van de Sande WW. A histopathological exploration of the Madurella mycetomatis grain.PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57774. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057774. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

106. Suleiman AM, Fahal AH. Oral cavity eumycetoma: a rare and unusual condition. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013; 115(4): e23-5.

107. Ehab AM Elagab, Maowia M Mukhtar, Ahmed H Fahal, Wendy WJ van de Sande. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Mycetoma Patients React Differently to Madurella mycetomatis Antigens than Healthy Endemic Controls. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2013; 7(4): e2081. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002081. Print 2013 Apr.

108. Suleiman HS, EL Hassan LAM, Fahal AH. Long Standing Gluteal Mass:  An Uncommon Presentation of Tuberculosis. Khartoum Med J 2013; 6(1): 864 – 867.

109. Osman AH, Ezaldeen EA, Ali BM, Jacoub AO, Suleiman SH, Fahal AH. Poor Infusion Therapy Knowledge among Young Doctors in Two Tertiary Teaching Hospitals in Khartoum State. Khartoum Med J 2013; 6(1): 854 – 858.

110. vanHellemond JJ, Vonk AG, de Vogel C, Koelewijn R, Vaessen N, Fahal AH, van Belkum A, van de Sande WW. Association of eumycetoma and schistosomiasis. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2013 May 23;7(5):e2241. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002241. Print 2013 May

111. vanBelkum A, Fahal A, van de Sande WW Mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis: a completely neglected medico-social dilemma. AdvExp Med Biol. 2013; 764:179-89.

112. Fahal AH, Elkhawad AO.  Managing mycetoma: guidelines for best practice Expert ‎Rev Dermatol 2013; 8(3)‎: 301-307.

113. GS de Hoog, S. Abdalla Ahmed, MJ Najafzadeh, DA Sutton, M. SaradeghiKeisari, AH Fahal, U. Eberhart, B. Stielow, GJ Verkley, LianXin, WWJ van de Sande.  Phylogenetic findings suggest possible new habitat and routes of infection of human eumycetoma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2013 May 16; 7(5):e2229. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002229. Print 2013 May 

114. Najwa A. Mhmoud, Ahmed H. Fahal, Wendy W. J. Van De Sande. The association between the interleukin-10 cytokine and CC chemokine ligand 5 polymorphismsand mycetoma granuloma formation. Med Mycol 2013, 51, 527–533.

115. Mhmoud N, Fahal A, Wendy van de Sande WJ. Polymorphisms of interleukin-10 and CCL5 Genes in Tuberculosis.  Trop Med Int Health. 2013; 18(9): 1119-1127.  doi:10.1111/tmi.12141

116. Ezaldeen EA, Fahal AH, Osman A. Mycetoma herbal treatment: the Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan experience. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2013 Aug 22;7(8):e2400. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002400. e Collection 2013.

117. Khamis, AAG, Ali BM, Jacoub AO, Suleiman SH, Fahal AH,  ‎Knowledge, Attitudes Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Surgical Staff at Khartoum State ‎towards the Hepatitis B virus infection.‎ Khartoum Med J  2014;7(1): 932- 940. 

118. Fahal AH, Shaheen S‎. Jones DH. Orthopaedic Aspects of Mycetoma: Instructional Review. Bone Joint J 2014; 96-B: 420–5. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.96B3.31421.

119. Al Dawi AF, Mustafa MI, Fahal AH, EL Hassan AM, Bakhiet SM, Mahgoub ES, Mergani A, Mukhtar MM. The Association of HLA-DRB1 & HLA-DQB1 and the occurrence of Eumycetoma. Khartoum Med J – 2013; 6(3): 923 - 929

120. Geneugelij K, Kloezen W, Fahal AH, van de Sande WWJ.  Active matrix metalloprotease-9 is associated with the collagen capsule surrounding the M. mycetomatis grain in mycetoma.  PLoSNegl Trop Dis Published: March 27, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002754.

121. Wendy W. J. van de Sande, El Sheikh Maghoub, Ahmed H. Fahal, Michael Goodfellow, Oliverio Welsh, Ed Zijlstra. The Mycetoma Knowledge Gap: Identification of Research Priorities.  PLoSNegl Trop Dis Published: March 27, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002667.

122. Fahal AH, Mahgoub ES, EL Hassan ESM,  ELTayeb E, EL Hassan AM.  Eye Eumycetoma: The Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan Case Series & Literature Review.  Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice 6 June 2014, doi: 10.1097/IPC.0000000000000157.

123. Sarah Abdalla Ahmed, Wendy Kloezen,  Frederick Duncanson, Ed Zijlstra, G. Sybren de Hoog, Ahmed H. Fahal, Wendy WJ van de Sande. Madurella mycetomatis is highly susceptible towards Ravuconazole. PLoSNegl Trop Dis  June 19, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002942

124. Najwa  A Mhmoud,  Ahmed H Fahal,  El Sheikh Mahgoub, Wendy W J van de ‎Sande. The combination of Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ketoconazole proved to be ‎effective and safe for treatment of Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma patients ‎with secondary Staphylococcus aureus infection. PLoSNegl Trop Dis June 19, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002959.

125. Wendy W. J. van de Sande, Ahmed H. Fahal, Michael Goodfellow, El Sheikh Maghoub, Oliverio Welsh, Ed Zijlstra. The merits and pitfalls of the currently used diagnostic tools in mycetoma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis July 03, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002918

126. Ahmed SA, van de Sande WJ, Stevens DA , Fahal AH, van Diepeningen A, Menken SBJ,  and de Hoog GS. Revision of agents of black-grain eumycetoma in the order Pleosporales. Persoonia 2014; 33: 141–154.

127. Samy AM, van de Sande WWJ, Fahal AH, Peterson AT Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2014; 8(10): e3250. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003250

128. Welsh O, Al-Abdely HM, Salinas-Carmona MC, Fahal AH (2014) Mycetoma Medical Therapy. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 8(10): e3218. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003218. http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003218

129. Fahal A, Mahgoub ES, EL Hassan AM, Abdel-Rahman ME, Alshambaty Y, Ed E Zijlstra A New Model for Management of Mycetoma in the Sudan. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2014, 8(10): e3271. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003271 

130. Fahal AH. Mycetoma CommDermato J. 2014; 10: 15-17.

131. Swierstra J, Debets S, de Vogel C, Lemmens-den Toom N, Verkaik N, Ramdani-Bouguessa N, Jonkman MF, van Dijl JM, Fahal A, van Belkum A, van Wamel W. IgG4 subclass-specific responses to Staphylococcus aureus antigens shed new light on host-pathogen interaction. Infect Immun. 2014 Nov 17. pii: IAI.02286-14.

132. Sarah A. Ahmed, Bert Gerrits van den Ende, Ahmed H. Fahal, Wendy W. J. van de Sande, GS. deHoog. Rapid Identification of Black Grain Eumycetoma causative agents Using Rolling Circle Amplification. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2014 Dec 4;8(12):e3368. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003368. eCollection 2014 Dec.

133. Kimberly Eadie, Ahmed Fahal, Wendy WJ van de Sande. In vitro activity of antiseptic solutions against M. mycetomatis, implications on eumycetoma management. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Nov 27. doi: 10.1111/bjd.13570. [Epub ahead of print]

134. Suleiman HK, Ibrahim OM, EL Hassan AM, Fahal AH.  Fat Necrosis of the Breast: in diabetic patients.  Khartoum Med J. 2014; 7:2, 1000 – 1004.

135. Ahmed AK Ahmed, SH Suleiman, Fahal AH Aggressive Uncontrolled Gluteal Eumycetoma Invading the Pelvic Cavity and ‎the Spinal Cord:  Unusual Clinical Presentation. Khartoum Med J. 2014; 7(2): 1005 – 1007.

136. Ahmed SA, Kloezen W, Fahal AH, de Hoog GS, van de Sande WW. In Vitro Interaction of Currently Used Azoles with TerbinafineAgainst Madurella mycetomatis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 Dec 8. pii: AAC.04487-14. [Epub ahead of print]

137. Ahmed SA, de Hoog GS, Stevens DA, Fahal AH and van de Sande WJ. "In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Coelomycete Agents of Black Grain Eumycetoma to Eight Antifungals Med Mycol. 2015 Jan 28. pii: myu098. [Epub ahead of print]. 

138. Hay RJ, Fahal AH. Mycetoma: an old and still neglected tropical disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015; 109(3):169-70. doi:10.1093/trstmh/trv003.

139. Ahmed SA, van de Sande WW, Stevens DA, Fahal A, van Diepeningen AD, Menken SB, de Hoog GS. Revision of agents of black-grain eumycetoma in the order Pleosporales. Persoonia. 2014 Dec; 33:141-54. doi: 10.3767/003158514X684744. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

140. Nenoff P, van de Sande WW, Fahal AH, Reinel D, Schöfer H. Eumycetoma and actinomycetoma - an update on causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy. J EurAcadDermatolVenereol. 2015 Feb 27. doi: 10.1111/jdv.13008.]

141. Ahmed SA, de Hoog GS, Stevens DA, Fahal AH, van de Sande WW. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of coelomycete agents of black grain eumycetoma to eight antifungals. Med Mycol. 2015; 53(3):295-301. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myu098. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

142. Ahmed SA, Kloezen W, Fahal AH, de Hoog GS, van de Sande WW. In Vitro Interaction of Currently Used Azoles with Terbinafine against Madurella mycetomatis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Feb; 59(2):1373-4. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04487-14.

143. Fahal A, Mahgoub ES, EL Hassan AM, Jacoub AO, Hassan D.  Head and Neck Mycetoma: The Mycetoma Research Centre Experience. PLoSNegl Trop Dis (2015) 9(3): e0003587. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003587

144. Elfadil H, Fahal A, Kloezen W, Ahmed EM, van de Sande W. The In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Sudanese Medicinal Plants against Madurella mycetomatis, the Eumycetoma Major Causative Agent. PLoSNegl Trop Dis (2015) 9(3): e0003488. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003488

145. Fahal AH, EL Hassan AM, Mahgoub ES, Rahman ME, Mycetoma in the Sudan: The Mycetoma Research Centre Update.‎PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2015 Mar 27; 9(3):e0003679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003679. eCollection 2015 Mar. 

146. HalaTaha, Ahmed Fahal, Wendy W. J. van de Sande. Mycetoma:  Epidemiology, Treatment Challenges and Progress.  Mycetoma: epidemiology, treatment challenges and progress. Res Rep Trop Med.  2015:6 31–36

147. Wendy WJ van de Sande, Marian ten Kate, Wim van Vianen, Ahmed Fahal, Irma Bakker-Woudenberg. Amphotericin B but not itraconazole is able to prevent grain formation in experimental M. mycetomatis mycetoma in mice. Br J Dermatol. 2015 Jul 6. doi: 10.1111/bjd.14025. 

148. Kloezen W, van Helvert-van Poppel M, Fahal AH, van de Sande WWJ.  A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2015; 9(7): e0003926. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003926

149. Eshraga A. Ezaldeen, Raif Mohamed Ahmed, EL SammaniWadella, Nadia EL Dawi, Ahmed Hassan Fahal. Actinomycetoma induced Cervical Spinal Cord Compression: A rare and serious complication. JMM Case Reports. 2015; DOI 10.1099/jmmcr.0.000074.

150. Ahmed SA, van de Sande WW, Desnos-Ollivier M, Fahal AH, Mhmoud NA, de Hoog GS. Application of Isothermal Amplification Techniques for the Identification of Madurella mycetomatis, the Prevalent Agent of Human Mycetoma. J ClinMicrobiol. 2015 Aug 5. pii: JCM.01544-15. 

151. Verwer PEB, Notenboom CC, Eadie K, Fahal AH, Verbrugh HA, van de Sande WWJ.  A polymorphism in the chitotriosidase gene associated with risk of mycetoma due to Madurella mycetomatis - a retrospective study PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2015 Sep 2;9(9):e0004061. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004061. eCollection 2015.

152. Najwa MA, Badr M Yousif, Ahmed Fahal, Wendy van de Sande. The nature of the M. mycetomatis mycetoma granuloma tissue pigments. Khartoum Med J.  2015; 8 (2): 1105 – 1110.

153. Ahmed Hassan Fahal.  Aggressive actinomycetoma. Khartoum Med J.  2015; 8 (2): 1116.

154. Emmanuel E. Siddig, Aghapy E. Siddig, Ali Edreis, Ahmed Omer Almobarak, Ahmed H Fahal. The Utility of Fine Needle Aspiration for cytology for the Diagnosis of Breast lesions in low sources area. Khartoum Med J.  2015; 8(3):1153-1157.

155. Emmanuel Edward Siddig, Najwa A. Mhmoud, Ahmed Hassan Fahal. Identification of M. mycetomatis fungus in pleural fluid and sputum of a patient with aggressive gluteal eumycetoma with pulmonary spread. Khartoum Med J 2015; 8(3): 1164-1167.

156. EE Zijlstra, WWJ van de Sande, AH Fahal. Mycetoma, Mycetoma: A Long Journey from Neglect. Editorial, PLoS NTD, DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004244 January 21, 2016.

157. Zijlstra EE, van de Sande WW, Welsh O, Mahgoub ES, Goodfellow M, Fahal AH. Mycetoma. Lancet Infect Dis. 16. 1, 100–112, January 2016. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00359-X

158. Scolding PS, Abbas MAQ, Omer RF, Fahal AH. Madurella mycetomatis-Induced Massive Shoulder Joint Destruction: A Management Challenge. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2016; 10(8): e0004849. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004849

159. Omer RF, Seif EL Din N, Abdel Rahim FA, Fahal AH. Hand Mycetoma: The Mycetoma Research Centre Experience and Literature Review. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2016;10(8): e0004886. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004886

160. Mohamed ElSW, Seif El Din N, Fahal AH. Multiple Mycetoma Lung Secondaries from Knee Eumycetoma: An Unusual Complication. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2016 Jul 21; 10(7):e0004735. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004735. eCollection 2016.

161. Fahal AH, Finkelman MA, Zhang Y, Van de Sande WW. Detection of (1→3)-β-D-glucan in eumycetoma patients. J ClinMicrobiol. 2016 Jul 20. pii: JCM.01478-16.

162. Nasr A, Abushouk A, Hamza A, Siddig E, Fahal AH. Th-1, Th-2 Cytokines Profile among Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma Patients. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2016 Jul 19; 10(7):e0004862. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004862. eCollection 2016.

163. Suleiman SH, Wadaella el S, Fahal AH. The Surgical Treatment of Mycetoma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2016 Jun 23; 10(6):e0004690. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004690. eCollection 2016

164. Smit S, Derks MF, Bervoets S, Fahal A, van Leeuwen W, van Belkum A, van de Sande WW. Genome Sequence of Madurella mycetomatis mm55, Isolated from a Human Mycetoma Case in Sudan. Genome Announc. 2016 May 26;4(3). pii: e00418-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00418-16

165. ELbadawi HS, Mahgoub E, Mahmoud N, Fahal AH. Use of immunoblotting in testing Madurella mycetomatis specific antigen. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2016 May;110(5):312-6. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trw023.

166. Emmanuel E. Siddig, Badr EL Din M. Yousif, Ali M. Edris, Ahmed H. Fahal. The Touch Imprint Cytology: A simple method for the diagnosis of mycetoma causative agents. Khartoum Med J –in press

167. Wadal A, Elhassan TA, Zein HA, Abdel-Rahman ME, Fahal AH.  Predictors of Post-operative Mycetoma Recurrence Using Machine-Learning Algorithms: The Mycetoma Research Center Experience. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2016; 10(10): e0005007. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005007

168. Mohamed NA, Fahal AH. Mycetoma Pulmonary Secondaries from a Gluteal Eumycetoma: An Unusual Presentation. PLoSNegl. Trop Dis. 2016; 10(10): e0004945. doi:10.1371/journal. pntd.0004945.

169. Mitjà O, Marks M, Bertran L, Kollie K, Argaw D, Fahal AH, Fitzpatrick C, Claire Fuller L, Izquierdo BG, Hay R, Ishii N,  JohnsonC,Lazarus JV, Meka A, Murdoch M, Ohene SA, Smal Pl, Andrew Steer A, Tabah EN, Tiendrebeogo A, Lance Waller L, Yotsu R, Walker SL, Kingsley Asiedut  K. Integrated Control and Management of Neglected Tropical Skin Diseases. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 2017, 11(1): e0005136. Doi

170. Fahal AH (2017) Mycetoma: A global medical and socio-economic dilemma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 11(4): e0005509. https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pntd.0005509

171. Eadie K, Parel F, Helvert-van Poppel M, Fahal A, van de Sande W. Combining two antifungal agents does not enhance survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Madurella mycetomatis. Trop Med Int Health. 2017 Mar 25. doi: 10.1111/tmi.12871. 

172. Ahmed AA, van de Sande W, Fahal AH. Mycetoma laboratory diagnosis: Review article. PLoSNegl Trop Dis. 2017; 11(8): e0005638. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005638

173. Wendy van de Sande, Ahmed Fahal, Sarah Abdalla Ahmed, Julian Alberto Serrano, Alexandro Bonifaz, Ed Zijlstra. Closing the mycetoma knowledge gap. Medical Mycology. 2017; 0,1–12 doi:10.1093/mmy/myx061

174. Siddig EE, Fahal AH. Histopathological Approach for the Diagnosis of Mycetoma Causative Agents: A Mini Review. J CytolHistol. 2017; 8: 466. doi: 10.4172/2157-7099.1000466.

175. Saad ESA, Fahal AH (2017) Broncho-pleuro-cutaneous fistula and pneumothorax: Rare challenging complications of chest wall eumycetoma. PLoSNegl Trop Dis 11(9): e0005737. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005737

176. Ahmed H M Ibrahim, Ali Mohamed Osman, A H Fahal, Alnada A M Ibrahim. The use of a documentary drama film to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of an endemic village population towards mycetoma at Sennar State, Sudan. Khartoum Med J. 2017; 10(2):1385 – 1391

177. Kloezen W, Parel F, Brüggemann R, Asouit K, Helvert-van Poppel, M, Fahal A, Mouton J, van de Sande, Wendy WJ. Amphotericin B and terbinafine but not the azoles prolong survival in Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Madurella mycetomatis. Medical Mycology, 2017, 0, 1–10. Doi: 10.1093/mmy/myx064

178. Queiroz-Telles F, Fahal AH, Falci DR, Caceres DH, Chiller T, Pasqualotto AC. Neglected endemic mycoses. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017; 17(11):e367-e377. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30306-7. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

 

Sent to publication

179. Wilson Lim, Kimberly Eadie, Deborah Horst-Kreft, Sarah Abdalla Ahmed, Ahmed H Fahal, Wendy W. van de Sande. Using the Madurella mycetomatis genome to develop a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing strategy. Send to publication 

180. Sahar Mubarak Bakhiet, Ahmed Hassan Fahal, Ahmed Mudawi Musa, EL SamaniWadaa Mohamed, RowaFathelrahman Omer, EimanSiddig Ahmed, Mustafa El Nour, EL Rayah Mohamed Mustafa, Suliman Hussein Suliman, Mohamed A Gadir EL Mamoun, Hajo Mohamed El Amin. A Holistic Approach to the Mycetoma Management. Sent to publications.

181. Ahmed Hassan Fahal, Mycetoma Chapter, Medical Mycology 

182. Hago AW, Suleiman SH, Fahal AH, EL Hassan AM. Breast Osteoid Osteoma:   A Case Report and Literature Review 

183. Lamyaa AM EL Hassan, WM Elamin.  AA Abdelhameed, MAM Ayis, Ameera Adam, AH Fahal, AM Musa, AM EL Hassan. Zygomycosis: Case series of seven patients from a single centre in Sudan.

 

Electronic Publications

· Virtual Patients Campus

Mycetoma virtual patients campus at the University of Khartoum website